A Critical Analysis of Sagittal Plane Deformity Correction With Minimally Invasive Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

Gregory M. Mundis, Jay D. Turner, Vedat Deverin, Juan S. Uribe, Pierce Nunley, Praveen Mummaneni, Neel Anand, Paul Park, David O. Okonkwo, Michael Y. Wang, Shay Bess, Adam S. Kanter, Richard Fessler, Stacie Nguyen, Behrooz A. Akbarnia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Introduction Sagittal plane realignment is important to achieve desirable clinical outcomes after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. This study evaluates the impact of minimally invasive (MIS) techniques on sagittal plane alignment and clinical outcomes in ASD patients. Methods A retrospective, multi-center review of ASD patients (age ≥18 years, and with one of the following: coronal Cobb ≥20°, sagittal vertical axis [SVA] >5 cm, and/or pelvic tilt >25°), MIS surgery, and four or more levels instrumented. Patients were stratified by baseline SRS-Schwab global alignment modifier (GAM) into three groups: 0 (SVA <4 cm), + (SVA 4–9.5 cm), or ++ (SVA >9.5 cm). Radiographic and clinical outcomes measures were analyzed with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Results A total of 96 ASD patients were identified, and 63 met the study's inclusion criteria of circumferential MIS or posterior MIS only, with four or more levels instrumented (n: Group 0 = 37, Group + = 15, and Group ++ = 11). Group 0 was younger than ++ (56.8 vs. 69.6 years), with a higher proportion of females than Group + or ++ (83.8% vs. 66.7% and 54.5%, respectively). Baseline HRQoL was similar. Postoperatively, Groups 0 and + had improved Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scale (NRS) back and leg scores. Group ++ only had improvement in NRS scores. At the latest follow-up, Groups 0 and ++ had similar sagittal measurements except for PT (21.6 vs. 23.6, p =.009). The + group had improvement in PI–LL (24.2 to 17; p =.015) and LL (30.9 to 38.3; p =.013). Eight of 27 (21.6%) Group 0 patients deteriorated (4 to Group +, 4 to Group ++). Three of 15 (20.0%) Group + patients deteriorated to Group ++, and 3 improved to Group 0. Six of 11 (54.5%) Group ++ patients improved (3 to Group + and 3 to Group 0). Conclusions MIS techniques successfully stabilized ASD patients with Group 0 and + deformities and improved HRQoL. This study suggests that severe sagittal imbalance is not adequately treated with MIS approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-271
Number of pages7
JournalSpine Deformity
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2017


  • Adult spinal deformity
  • Minimally invasive
  • Sagittal imbalance
  • Spine surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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