Building on convergent insights of resource dependence and business political behavior, this article attempts to develop a conceptual and typological framework of coopetition in which cooperation and competition simultaneously coexist in the relationship between multinational corporations (MNCs) and host governments. The coopetition view does not see the MNC-government relationship (MGR) as dichotomous or as a continuum between cooperation and competition but as a simultaneous, inclusive partnership containing cooperation and competition as two separate yet interrelated continua. This article addresses why coopetition arises, what coopetition constitutes, and how coopetition configures with environmental and organizational dynamics. It offers a typology of coopetition that identifies MNCs involving varying cooperation and competition (estranger, contender, partner, and integrator) and elucidates each identity's political responses.
- Host government
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Business and International Management
- Strategy and Management