A contemporary update on pathology standards for bladder cancer: Transurethral resection and radical cystectomy specimens

Donna E. Hansel, Mahul B. Amin, Eva Comperat, Richard J. Cote, Ruth Knüchel, Rodolfo Montironi, Victor E. Reuter, Mark S. Soloway, Saleem A. Umar, Theodorus H. Van Der Kwast

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

52 Scopus citations

Abstract

Context: Pathology standards for the diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa) have recently evolved to better reflect patient diagnosis and clinical outcomes. Objective: To update pathology reporting standards for BCa. Evidence acquisition: We searched the international medical literature and reviewed all articles that addressed BCa gross dissection, pathologic diagnosis, staging, and reporting as of June 6, 2012. We also reviewed the proceedings from the recent Second International Consultation on Bladder Cancer (Vienna, Austria). The literature selected for review focuses on evidence-based studies that address histopathologic factors in BCa, with emphasis placed on factors that influence patient diagnosis and clinical outcomes. Evidence synthesis: We separated data into three main components for analysis based on the type of specimen obtained: (1) transurethral resection specimens, with an emphasis on pathologic staging, variants of urothelial carcinoma, angiolymphatic invasion, and relevant ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemistry in assessing these features; (2) cystectomy specimens, with an emphasis on pT0 disease, prostatic involvement by urothelial carcinoma and lymph node dissection and analysis; and (3) cytology correlates, with recommendations for the use of cytology paired with tissue-based sampling. Areas of controversy are described and recommendations based on existing guidelines are provided. The value of a multidisciplinary team is highlighted. Conclusions: Ongoing international collaborations amongst pathologists have led to emerging standards in the reporting and microscopic diagnosis of BCa specimens. Although some areas remain controversial, we present the most up-to-date data and guidelines relevant to neoplastic pathology of the urinary bladder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-332
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean urology
Volume63
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013

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Keywords

  • Bladder cancer
  • Pathology
  • Review
  • Standards

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Hansel, D. E., Amin, M. B., Comperat, E., Cote, R. J., Knüchel, R., Montironi, R., Reuter, V. E., Soloway, M. S., Umar, S. A., & Van Der Kwast, T. H. (2013). A contemporary update on pathology standards for bladder cancer: Transurethral resection and radical cystectomy specimens. European urology, 63(2), 321-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.10.008