Purpose: Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) was compared with swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) for the detection of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional. Methods: Patients with treatment-naïve PCV based on ICGA imaging underwent same-day SS-OCTA imaging at Kyung Hee University Medical Center between April 2017 and November 2018. ICGA and SS-OCTA images were graded independently. SS-OCTA images were graded using both flow and structural information. Images were graded for the number of polypoidal lesions and the total lesion area, which included both the polypoidal lesions and the branching vascular networks (BVNs). Results: A total of 31 eyes from 30 patients were enrolled. Polypoidal lesions were identified in all eyes using both modalities, and there was agreement on the number of polypoidal lesions in 17 eyes (55%). In 12 eyes (39%), SS-OCTA graders identified a greater number of polypoidal lesions, and in 2 eyes (6%) ICGA graders identified more lesions. There was no significant difference in the lesion area measurements (standard deviation = 1.09, P = .08). The lesion with the largest difference in area measurements resulted from focal areas of atrophy, misdiagnosed as polypoidal lesions on ICGA, and a low-lying serous retinal pigment epithelial detachment erroneously identified as part of the BVN by ICGA graders. SS-OCTA imaging correctly diagnosed the focal areas of atrophy and the serous retinal pigment epitheial detachment. Conclusions: SS-OCTA imaging was comparable to ICGA for the diagnosis of treatment-naïve PCV. However, SS-OCTA might be better than ICGA in correctly identifying both polypoidal lesions and BVNs in treatment-naïve PCV.
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