Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, a negative regulator of T-cell-mediated immune response. Ipilimumab is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, its use frequently has been associated with immune-related side effects, which can be explained by its mechanism of action. More common adverse effects include dermatitis, colitis, hepatitis, and endocrinopathies, but many less common immune-related adverse effects that involve various tissues and organ systems have been reported with more widespread use of ipilimumab since its approval in 2011. A case of bilateral orbital inflammatory syndrome secondary to ipilimumab, in a patient undergoing adjuvant treatment for metastatic melanoma, is reported.
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