We assessed the role of bradykinin (BK) in allergen-induced early and late bronchial responses, airway inflammation, mediator release, and antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic sheep by studying the effects of the BK B2 receptor antagonist, NPC-567 (D-Arg-[Hyp3, D-Phe7]-BK), on these parameters. Antigen challenge was performed on two occasions > 3 wk apart, once with placebo (control) and once after high-dose (10 mg/ml) and low-dose (5 mg/ml) treatments with aerosol NPC-567. In the control trials (n = 14) antigen challenge resulted in an early and late increase in specific lung resistance (SRL). The early response was associated with increases (p < 0.05) in prostaglandin (PG) D2, immunoreactive kinin, tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAME)-esterase, and PGE2 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The late response was associated with increase (p < 0.05) in leukotrienes (LT) B4 and C4, thromboxane (TX) B2, 6-keto-PGF(1α), and PGE2. There was a significant influx of neutrophils in the BAL fluid during the late response, and airway hyperresponsiveness to carbachol aerosol was apparent 4 h after challenge. In six sheep the high-dose NPC-567 treatment (given before, during, and 4 h after antigen challenge) did not attenuate the early bronchoconstrictor response or the early release of mediators but caused a significant reduction in the late response (p < 0.05). This protective effect was accompanied by reductions (p < 0.05) in both the concentrations of all the mediators associated with the late response and the severity of the BAL neutrophilia. High-dose NPC-567 did not attenuate the airway hyperresponsiveness or the cellular inflammatory response seen 24 h after challenge. In eight sheep treated with the low dose of NPC-567 (given before, during, and 4, 8, and 24 h after challenge) the early response was not blocked but the late response was again inhibited, as were the mediators associated with the late response. At the low dose the drug did not prevent the airway inflammation at 8 or 24 h. The additional treatments did, however, prevent the 24 h hyperresponsiveness. These data suggest that kinin generation during antigen-induced airway anaphylaxis may be important for controlling the release of arachidonic acid metabolites from airway inflammatory cells that contribute to the development of the late response in the allergic sheep model.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine