A BCI Gaze Sensing Method Using Low Jitter Code Modulated VEP

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are used in clinical applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and extensively in brain-computer interface (BCI) research. Many BCI implementations utilize steady-state VEP (SSVEP) and/or code modulated VEP (c-VEP) as inputs, in tandem with sophisticated methods to improve information transfer rates (ITR). There is a gap in knowledge regarding the adaptation dynamics and physiological generation mechanisms of the VEP response, and the relation of these factors with BCI performance. A simple, dual pattern display setup was used to evoke VEPs and to test signatures elicited by non-isochronic, non-singular, low jitter stimuli at the rates of 10, 32, 50, and 70 reversals per second (rps). Non-isochronic, low-jitter stimulation elicits quasi-steady-state VEPs (QSS-VEPs) that are utilized for the simultaneous generation of transient VEP and QSS-VEP. QSS-VEP is a special case of c-VEPs, and it is assumed that it shares similar generators of the SSVEPs. Eight subjects were recorded, and the performance of the overall system was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, accuracy plots, and ITRs. In summary, QSS-VEPs performed better than transient VEPs (TR-VEP). It was found that in general, 32 rps stimulation had the highest ROC area, accuracy, and ITRs. Moreover, QSS-VEPs were found to lead to higher accuracy by template matching compared to SSVEPs at 32 rps. To investigate the reasons behind this, adaptation dynamics of transient VEPs and QSS-VEPs at all four rates were analyzed and speculated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSensors (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume19
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Brain-Computer Interfaces
Brain computer interface
Visual Evoked Potentials
Bioelectric potentials
Jitter
brain
quasi-steady states
vibration
stimulation
ROC Curve
receivers
Ophthalmology
ophthalmology
neurology
information transfer
Physiological Adaptation
Template matching
Neurology
stimuli
templates

Keywords

  • BCI
  • c-VEP
  • deconvolution
  • gaze sensing
  • QSS-VEP
  • SSVEP
  • transient VEP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

A BCI Gaze Sensing Method Using Low Jitter Code Modulated VEP. / Kaya, Ibrahim; Bohórquez, Jorge; Özdamar, Özcan.

In: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), Vol. 19, No. 17, 02.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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