Objectives: To determine whether there is an oncologic benefit of adjuvant bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) after resection of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (UTTCC). Methods: A total of 133 renal units (RU) treated by percutaneous resection for UTTCC between 1985 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-four RU were excluded because of carcinoma in situ, high grade/stage, metastatic disease present at initial presentation, and/or the patient could tolerate loss of RU. Eighty-nine RU treated primarily by percutaneous resection were then analyzed. Fifty RU received adjuvant BCG therapy 2 weeks after endoscopic management for a total of 6 courses. Recurrence was defined as a positive biopsy result after the third-look nephroscopy. Progression of disease was assessed at time of recurrence and defined as an increase in grade/stage of disease. Results: Mean age (± SD) of 89 RU was 70.9 ± 11.1 years. Overall follow-up was 61.1 + 54.8 months. Grade distribution was 56.2% (50 of 89) and 43.8% (39 of 89) for low- and high-grade disease, respectively. There was no statistical difference with regard to tumor grade or stage between treated and nontreated groups (P > .05). Recurrence, time to recurrence, and progression of disease among RU treated with BCG were subselected by grade and compared with the corresponding nontreated group. Statistical significance between any of the treated and nontreated groups was not demonstrated (P > .05). Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that there is no overall oncologic benefit in the administration of adjuvant BCG with regard to disease recurrence, interval to recurrence, and progression of disease in the treatment of UTTCC.
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