Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine outcomes for respiratory and gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors utilizing a large cancer registry. Methods: Cases of respiratory and gastrointestinal carcinoid from the Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS) from 1981 to 2001 were reviewed. Descriptive statistics, age-adjusted tumor incidence, and survival rates were determined. Results: A total of 7201 cases of malignant carcinoid were identified. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors comprised 82% of all carcinoids encountered. The mean age was 64.4 ± 0.15 years. Stratified by location, there were 3000 (51.4%) foregut carcinoids (including those found in the respiratory tree-2325 in the lung), 2130 (36.5%) midgut carcinoids, and 712 (12.2%) hindgut carcinoids. Second, distinct malignancies were observed in 23% of cases. The total age-adjusted incidence rate has increased from 0.62 per 100,000 in 1980 to 5.17 per 100,000 in 2000. Overall median survival was 21.97 months. The median survival was 19.0 months for foregut carcinoids (excluding those arising in the respiratory tract); 33.9 months for midgut tumors; and 22.7 months for hindgut carcinoids. There was a statistically significant better survival for those with midgut tumors than for those in the other groups (P < 0.001). Age < 60 years, white race, and female sex were all associated with better survival (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The incidence of pulmonary and gastrointestinal carcinoids has dramatically increased since 1981. Tumor location and age ≥ 60 years are the strongest predictors of mortality.
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