3D printed ABS/paraffin hybrid rocket fuels with carbon dots for superior combustion performance

Cagri Oztan, Eric Ginzburg, Mert Akin, Yiqun Zhou, Roger M. Leblanc, Victoria Coverstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


In this research, the combustion performance of a novel, composite hybrid rocket fuel grain composed of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Paraffin was investigated to understand the effects of incorporation of a novel nanomaterial: gel-like carbon dots (CDs), into the paraffin component. ABS fuel grains with straight ports were 3D printed and used as molds into which base and 1 wt% CD-loaded paraffin materials were casted separately. For control, pure ABS fuel grains were also printed. All fuel grains were exposed to ballistic tests using the lab-scale test setup where gaseous oxygen (GOX) was employed as oxidizer. Test results exhibited that ABS/CD-loaded paraffin fuel grains manifested a maximum combustion efficiency and regression rate of 88% and 1.29 mm/s, which marked enhancements of about 8.5% and 11% compared to ABS/pure paraffin fuel grains, respectively. Despite the compromise in the mechanical properties, the enhancement in combustion characteristics of CD-loaded fuel grains was attributed to lower viscosity, higher particle entrainment, specific surface area and catalytic activity

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)428-434
Number of pages7
JournalCombustion and Flame
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Carbon
  • Combustion
  • Dots
  • Hybrid rockets
  • Regression rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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