3 cases of primary intracranial hemorrhage associated with Molly, a purified form of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

D. Ethan Kahn, Nicholas Ferraro, Ronald Benveniste

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations


3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or Ecstasy in tablet form) is a powerful sympathomimetic drug that is commonly perceived as safer than other stimulants such as methamphetamine or cocaine. Molly is a purified form of MDMA that is perceived by users as being even safer, as it is free of adulterants such as methamphetamine. Previously, all reports of intracranial hemorrhages in MDMA abusers were associated with coingestion of other sympathomimetic drugs, or with pre-existing cerebrovascular lesions. We describe a series of three young, otherwise healthy patients with various types of intracranial hemorrhages associated with Molly ingestion. All three patients underwent extensive workup including catheter angiography that did not demonstrate aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, or vasculitis. We suggest that even the purified form of MDMA can cause serious intracranial hemorrhagic complications and should not be thought of as a safe recreational drug.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-260
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the Neurological Sciences
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Dec 15 2012



  • 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
  • Ecstasy
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Molly

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology

Cite this