The appearance of a complex between tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and PI3K in a high-speed pellet fraction (HSP) is thought to be a key event in insulin action. Conversely, the disappearance of the IRS-1/PI3K complex from this fraction has been linked to insulin desensitization. The present study examines the role of 14-3-3, a specific phospho-serine binding protein, in mediating the disappearance of IRS-1 from the HSP after insulin treatment. An in vitro pull-down assay using recombinant 14-3-3 revealed that insulin enhances the association of 14-3-3 with IRS-1 in cultured adipocytes and that this is completely inhibited by wortmannin. An association of IRS-1 and 14-3-3 was also observed and was maximal after stimulation by insulin, when endogenous proteins were immunoprecipitated. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and okadaic acid, other agents that cause serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1, also stimulated IRS binding to 14-3-3. The enhancement of IRS-1 binding to 14-3-3 by insulin was accompanied by movement of IRS-1 and the p85 subunit of PI3K from the HSP to the cytosol. In keeping with a key role of 14-3-3 in mediating this redistribution of IRS-1, the complexes of IRS-1 and 14-3-3 were found in the cytosol but not in the HSP of insulin-treated cells. In addition, colocalization of IRS-1 and 14-3-3 was observed in the cytoplasm after insulin treatment by confocal microscopy. Finally, the addition of a phosphorylated 14-3-3 binding peptide to an adipocyte homogenate (to remove 14-3-3 from IRS-1) increased the abundance of IRS-1/PI3K complexes in the HSP and decreased their abundance in the cytosol. These findings strongly suggest that 14-3-3 participates in the intracellular trafficking of IRS-1 by promoting the displacement of serine-phosphorylated IRS-1 from particular structures. They also suggest that 14-3-3 proteins could play an integral role in the process of insulin desensitization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology