ω-3 tear film lipids correlate with clinical measures of dry eye

Scott D. Walter, Karsten Gronert, Allison L. McClellan, Roy C Levitt, Konstantinos D. Sarantopoulos, Anat Galor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate inflammatory processes throughout the body through distinct classes of lipid mediators that possess both proinflammatory and proresolving properties. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between lipid profiles in human tears and dry eye (DE) symptoms and signs. Methods: Forty-one patients with normal eyelid and corneal anatomy were prospectively recruited from a Veterans Administration Hospital over 18 months. Symptoms and signs of DE were assessed, and tear samples was analyzed by mass spectrometry–based lipidomics. Statistical analyses comparing the relationship between tear film lipids and DE included Pearson/Spearman correlations and t-tests. Results: Arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were present in more than 90% of tear film samples. The ratio of ω-6 (AA) to ω-3 (DHA+EPA) fatty acids was correlated with multiple measures of tear film dysfunction (tear breakup time, Schirmer 2 scores, and corneal staining; all P <0.05). Arachidonic acid–derived prostaglandin E2 was detected in the majority of samples and correlated with low tear osmolarity, meibomian gland plugging, and corneal staining. Conclusions: Both ω-3 and ω-6 lipid circuits are activated in the human tear film. The ratio of ω-6:ω-3 tear lipids is elevated in DE patients in proportion to the degree of tear film dysfunction and corneal staining. Metabolic deficiency of ω-3 tear film lipids may be a driver of chronic ocular surface inflammation in DE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2472-2478
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume57
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Fingerprint

Tears
Lipids
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Staining and Labeling
Arachidonic Acid
Signs and Symptoms
Meibomian Glands
Veterans Hospitals
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
Eyelids
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Dinoprostone
Osmolar Concentration
Anatomy
Fatty Acids
Cross-Sectional Studies
Inflammation

Keywords

  • Dry eyes
  • Fatty acids
  • Nutrition
  • Prostaglandins
  • Tears

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

ω-3 tear film lipids correlate with clinical measures of dry eye. / Walter, Scott D.; Gronert, Karsten; McClellan, Allison L.; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Galor, Anat.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 57, No. 6, 01.05.2016, p. 2472-2478.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8af22aa31e644f41bbf6b44cf1788ca3,
title = "ω-3 tear film lipids correlate with clinical measures of dry eye",
abstract = "Purpose: ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate inflammatory processes throughout the body through distinct classes of lipid mediators that possess both proinflammatory and proresolving properties. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between lipid profiles in human tears and dry eye (DE) symptoms and signs. Methods: Forty-one patients with normal eyelid and corneal anatomy were prospectively recruited from a Veterans Administration Hospital over 18 months. Symptoms and signs of DE were assessed, and tear samples was analyzed by mass spectrometry–based lipidomics. Statistical analyses comparing the relationship between tear film lipids and DE included Pearson/Spearman correlations and t-tests. Results: Arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were present in more than 90{\%} of tear film samples. The ratio of ω-6 (AA) to ω-3 (DHA+EPA) fatty acids was correlated with multiple measures of tear film dysfunction (tear breakup time, Schirmer 2 scores, and corneal staining; all P <0.05). Arachidonic acid–derived prostaglandin E2 was detected in the majority of samples and correlated with low tear osmolarity, meibomian gland plugging, and corneal staining. Conclusions: Both ω-3 and ω-6 lipid circuits are activated in the human tear film. The ratio of ω-6:ω-3 tear lipids is elevated in DE patients in proportion to the degree of tear film dysfunction and corneal staining. Metabolic deficiency of ω-3 tear film lipids may be a driver of chronic ocular surface inflammation in DE.",
keywords = "Dry eyes, Fatty acids, Nutrition, Prostaglandins, Tears",
author = "Walter, {Scott D.} and Karsten Gronert and McClellan, {Allison L.} and Levitt, {Roy C} and Sarantopoulos, {Konstantinos D.} and Anat Galor",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1167/iovs.16-19131",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "57",
pages = "2472--2478",
journal = "Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science",
issn = "0146-0404",
publisher = "Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - ω-3 tear film lipids correlate with clinical measures of dry eye

AU - Walter, Scott D.

AU - Gronert, Karsten

AU - McClellan, Allison L.

AU - Levitt, Roy C

AU - Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.

AU - Galor, Anat

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - Purpose: ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate inflammatory processes throughout the body through distinct classes of lipid mediators that possess both proinflammatory and proresolving properties. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between lipid profiles in human tears and dry eye (DE) symptoms and signs. Methods: Forty-one patients with normal eyelid and corneal anatomy were prospectively recruited from a Veterans Administration Hospital over 18 months. Symptoms and signs of DE were assessed, and tear samples was analyzed by mass spectrometry–based lipidomics. Statistical analyses comparing the relationship between tear film lipids and DE included Pearson/Spearman correlations and t-tests. Results: Arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were present in more than 90% of tear film samples. The ratio of ω-6 (AA) to ω-3 (DHA+EPA) fatty acids was correlated with multiple measures of tear film dysfunction (tear breakup time, Schirmer 2 scores, and corneal staining; all P <0.05). Arachidonic acid–derived prostaglandin E2 was detected in the majority of samples and correlated with low tear osmolarity, meibomian gland plugging, and corneal staining. Conclusions: Both ω-3 and ω-6 lipid circuits are activated in the human tear film. The ratio of ω-6:ω-3 tear lipids is elevated in DE patients in proportion to the degree of tear film dysfunction and corneal staining. Metabolic deficiency of ω-3 tear film lipids may be a driver of chronic ocular surface inflammation in DE.

AB - Purpose: ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate inflammatory processes throughout the body through distinct classes of lipid mediators that possess both proinflammatory and proresolving properties. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between lipid profiles in human tears and dry eye (DE) symptoms and signs. Methods: Forty-one patients with normal eyelid and corneal anatomy were prospectively recruited from a Veterans Administration Hospital over 18 months. Symptoms and signs of DE were assessed, and tear samples was analyzed by mass spectrometry–based lipidomics. Statistical analyses comparing the relationship between tear film lipids and DE included Pearson/Spearman correlations and t-tests. Results: Arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were present in more than 90% of tear film samples. The ratio of ω-6 (AA) to ω-3 (DHA+EPA) fatty acids was correlated with multiple measures of tear film dysfunction (tear breakup time, Schirmer 2 scores, and corneal staining; all P <0.05). Arachidonic acid–derived prostaglandin E2 was detected in the majority of samples and correlated with low tear osmolarity, meibomian gland plugging, and corneal staining. Conclusions: Both ω-3 and ω-6 lipid circuits are activated in the human tear film. The ratio of ω-6:ω-3 tear lipids is elevated in DE patients in proportion to the degree of tear film dysfunction and corneal staining. Metabolic deficiency of ω-3 tear film lipids may be a driver of chronic ocular surface inflammation in DE.

KW - Dry eyes

KW - Fatty acids

KW - Nutrition

KW - Prostaglandins

KW - Tears

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84965034278&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84965034278&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1167/iovs.16-19131

DO - 10.1167/iovs.16-19131

M3 - Article

C2 - 27138739

AN - SCOPUS:84965034278

VL - 57

SP - 2472

EP - 2478

JO - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

JF - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

SN - 0146-0404

IS - 6

ER -