Project: Research project


Heterosexual transmission of HIV has been well documented and
may represent the major route of virus spread into the general
population. The extend of the problem and the factors associated
with the heterosexual transmission of HIV are not yet well
understood. The purpose of the current proposal is to determine
the seroprevalence and seroincidence rates of HIV infection in
two separate cohorts, including female prostitutes and sexually
active heterosexuals who have sexual contact with prostitutes or
who have multiple heterosexual partners. Participants will be
recruited from an HIV screening clinic at the medical center.
Family Health Centers, Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics and
via advertisement through local newspapers, radio shows, posters
and flyers (placers). Evaluation will include an medical history,
physical examination, a standardized interview, and laboratory
tests. The interview will focus on socioeconomic status,
education, occupation, sexual activity and practices, birth control
methods, other sexually transmitted diseases, general health, and
risk factors for HIV infection. Laboratory tests will include T-
cell enumeration, serologic tests for hepatitis, syphilis,
cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, and HIV, and cultures for gonorrhea,
herpes, and HIV. Participants found to be seronegative for HIV
will be followed every 6 months thereafter for 3 years.
Seroprevalence and seroincidence rates will be calculated for the
entire group and within several subsets. Potential risk factors,
modes, and mechanisms for the heterosexual transmission of HIV
will be evaluated by comparing individuals who are seropositive
for HIV to those who are seronegative. Factors to be evaluated
will include length of prostitution, contact with prostitutes,
number of sexual partners, number of sexual encounters, types of
sexual activity, use of barrier contraceptives (condoms), the
presence of other sexually transmitted disease, or potential
breaks in epithelial barriers. The presence of HIV p24 antigen,
antibody, and presence of virus in vaginal and seminal fluid will be
correlated with seroprevalence and seroincidence rates of HIV.
Frequency of condom use, proper technique, and leakage or
breakage of condoms will also be correlated with seroprevalence
and seroincidence rates of HIV. Data analysis will include
student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, Wilcoxon
rank-sum test, factor analysis of socioeconomic components, and
the use of multivariate logistic regression analyses to look for
associations, confounding, and interaction.
Effective start/end date9/30/878/31/93


  • National Institutes of Health: $652,618.00
  • National Institutes of Health
  • National Institutes of Health
  • National Institutes of Health
  • National Institutes of Health


Sex Workers
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexual Partners
HIV Infections
HIV Core Protein p24
Sex Work
Family Health
Serologic Tests
Chi-Square Distribution
Contraceptive Agents


  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)